Available courses

B.Sc. Semester II (Microbiology) 

Microbial Techniques

(UG-MB (08)-S2-T)

This course is for B.Sc. Semester II students who are studying Microbiology as one of the subjects. 

Course Contents:

Unit-I: Microscopy: Principle and Applications

Unit-II: Staining Techniques

Unit-III: Microbial Reproduction and Growth.

Unit-IV: Microbial Control.

Unit-V: Chemical Control Agents

Unit-VI: Microbial interaction



1. Dr. Mrs. S.S. Khandare

2. Mr. M.G. Ingale

3. Dr. B.V. Mohite

                                        B.Sc. Semester III (Microbiology)                                  

Chemistry of Organic Constituents, Enzymology and Metabolism

(UG-MB (08)-S3-T)


Unit I—Carbohydrates Metabolism

A)   Definition of Carbohydrate, Classification of carbohydrates, Structure of monosaccharides:  glucose, fructose. Structure of disaccharides: maltose, lactose, sucrose. Concept of glycosidic bond, Trisachcharide: raffinose. Homopolysaccharides: starch, glycogen, cellulose.            Heteropolysaccharides: hyluronic acid.

B)   General strategy of metabolism, EMP pathway and its regulation, TCA cycle and its regulation, substrate level phosphorylation, Cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation, Oxidative phosphorylation.


Unit II--- Proteins, Amino acids and Metabolism

A)   Definition of protein, Classification of protein, Biological importance of protein, Protein degradation.

B)   Classification of amino acids, titration curve, acidic, basic and neutral amino acids, peptide bond theory, organizational levels of proteins, concept of  oligomeric protein.

C)   Amino acid breakdown, deamination (alanine, tyrosine, methionine), urea cycle, glucogenesis and ketogenesis.


Unit III---Lipid and Lipid Metabolism

A)  Definition of lipids, Classification of lipids, structure of triglycerides, compound lipids, derived lipids, Biological functions of lipids.

B)   Definition of fatty acid, Beta oxidation, Omega oxidation, alpha oxidation, oxidation of odd number fatty acids, oxidation of branched chain fatty acids.


Unit IV --- Nucleic acid and Metabolism

A)   DNA, RNA and various forms of DNA & RNA, Structure of purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides & nucleotides, Replication of DNA, Modes of replication, general features, rolling circle & knife & fork model.

B)  Nucleotide metabolism, biosynthesis of purine nucleotide & biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides.


Unit V--- Enzymology

A)  General concept,  Definition and nature of enzymes, classification, nomenclature, models of enzyme action, (Lock & key, Induced fit model, Strain model), primary concept of enzyme kinetics, MM equation, modifications of MM equations (LB plot, Eadie hofstee, Hill plot, Hanes woolf plot), activation energy, transition state, ES complex, enzyme activity, katal, specific activity, turn over number, Significance of Km and Vmax.

 B)   Enzyme inhibition and their types, enzyme regulation & their types, allosteric sites, allosteric modulaters, functional diversity such as holoenzyme, apoenzyme, coenzyme, cofactor, prosthetic group, isoenzymes, membrane bound enzymes, multienzyme complex, zymogens.


Unit VI---Vitamins

A)    Classification on the basis of solubility, Water soluble vitamins, structure, function & chemistry of vitamin B1,B2,B12, vitamin C.

B)    fat soluble vitamin: Structure, function & chemistry of vitamin A, D,E & K, Hyper and hypovitaminosis


                                                                          Practicals Semester III (UG-MB (08)-S3-P)


1. Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

2. Estimation of carbohydrates by DNS/ anthrone =method.                                

3. Detection of enzymes: amylase, catalase, gelatinase, lipase.

4. Estimation of proteins by Lawrys method.

5. Estimation of DNA.

6. Estimation of RNA.

7. UV absorption of  Nucleic acid.

8. Effect of PH on enzyme activity

9. Effect of temperature on enzyme activity.

10. Effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity.

11. Estimation of lipid/cholesterol.

List of Reference Books for Sem III Microbiology:

1. Biochemistry: - Lehninger

2. General Microbiology. Vol 1& II. : - Powar & Daginawala

3. An Introduction to Biochemestry  by Plummer 3 rd Edition ,Tata McGraw –Hill

4. Molecular Biology of the Cell: - J. D. Watson, D. Bray

5 The DNA Story: - J. D. Watson

6 Genetics of Prokaryotes: - Srivastava et.al

7 Genes: - Pramod Kumar

8. Genetic Engineering and its Applications -Joshi P.

9 Gene Transfer and Expreesion a Laboratory Manual: - Michael


10) Concept in biotechnology: - D. Balasubramanium

11. Essential Genetics: - Daniel. Hartl.

12. Nelson D.L and Cox M.M.(2002) Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry, Macmillan Worth Pub.Co.New Delhi.

13. Garett, R.H and Grisham,C.M (2004) biochemistry. 3rd ed.Brooks/Cole, publishing company,California.

14. Jain J.L,Nitin Jain, Sunjay Jain (1979) Fundamentals of Biochemistry.7th edition, S.Chand publishers.

15. Satyanarayana U., Chakrapani U.(2014)Biochemistry ,4th edition.

This course outline the industrial and applied microbiology topics including fundamentals of Industrial Microbiology, scale up and downstream processing and industrail production of different microbial products. The Applied Microbiology includes air, water and food microbiology with focus on bacteriological analysis of water, waste water treatment and role of microbes in air, soil and food 

This course is designed for the students of B.Sc. III year, Semester V Microbiology 

Name of the paper: Medical Microbiology & Immunology




Epidemiology and host–parasite relationship.

1.      Definitions:

  i.      Signs, symptoms and syndrome of disease, stages of infectious diseases-incubation period, prodromal phase, Invasive phase, decline phase and the period of convalescence, primary infection, secondary infection, acute infection, chronic infection  local andsystemic infection, iatrogenic infection, nosocomial infection, congenital infection, teratogenic infection, fulminating infection, atypical infection, latent infection

ii.      Bacteremia, septicaemia, pyamia, toxemia, Viremia.

iii.      Epidemic, Endemic, Pandemic, Zoonotic, Exotic, prosodemic sporadic deisease.

 2.  Dynamics of disease transmission:

        i.            Causative or etiological agents [list]

      ii.            Sources of reservoir of infection.

Exogenous Human(case and carrier)

Non-living reservoir.

Endogenous infections

    iii.            Portal of exit

    iv.            Mode      of      transmission-Contact,      Vehicle, Vector, Air-borne, transplacental and laboratory/hospital infections.

      v.            Portal of entry.

    vi.            Susceptibility of host.

3.   Control   of communicable diseases: Control of sources,   blocking the channels of transmission, protecting the susceptible host.


      Infectious Microbiology and Normal Flora


1.      Microbial mechanism of Pathogenicity:  pathogenicity  and  virulence, exaltation  and attenuation, MID, MLD, ID 50, LD50.

        i.            Invasiveness:-adherence, capsule, enzymes.

      ii.            Toxigenicity:- Exotoxins and Endotoxins.

2.      Normal flora of healthy human host:

        i.            Definition, origin, significance, Germ free and Gnotobiotic life.

      ii.            Characteristics of normal flora

3.      Infectious microbiology: Microbial diseases of skin, eye, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, lymphatic, urinary, reproductive and nervous systems. (Outline of structure of each system and lists of infectious diseases affecting the particular system).

Unit- III

Study  of  pathogenic  organisms, Morphology,  cultural  characteristics,  biochemical characteristics, pathogenesis, serology, lab diagnosis and disease control


1.      Bacteria

        i.            Salmonella typhi and paratyphi A & B.

      ii.            Spirochetes- Treponema  pallidum

2.      Viruses

        i.            HIV

3.      Protozoa

        i.            Plasmodium  

Disease control


1.      Basic mechanism of action of drugs.

        i.            Bacterial cell wall synthesis inhibitor: Penicillin

      ii.            Bacterial protein synthesis inhibitor: Chloramphenicol

    iii.            Bacterial DNA synthesis inhibitor: Nalidixic acid, Floxacin

    iv.            Antimetabolites: Trimethoprime, sulfamethoxazole.

2.      Nonautomated and automated in vitro drug susceptibility testing-Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and e-strip method.

3.      Various mechanisms of development of drug resistance



Immunity and Non specific defenses

1.      Immunity: Definition and general concept

2.      Haematopoiesis and Cells of immune system

a)      Diagram of Haematopoiesis

b)      General characteristics of

                                i.            B and Tcells,

                              ii.            Monocytes and macrophages,

                            iii.            Neutrophils, Eosinophils and                                                 basophiles.

                            iv.            Mast cells

                              v.            Dendritic cells

                            vi.            Natural Killer cells

3.      Non specific defenses of the host:

a)      Species, race and individual resistance.

b)      Age, sex, hormonal and nutritional influences.

4.      Mechanism of non-specific defenses:

a)      First line of defense – Physical, chemical and                      biological barriers

b)      Second line of defense: 

        i.            Humoral components: Defensins, pattern recognition proteins (PRP) and pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), complement, kinins, acute phase reactants.

      ii.            Cellular components: Phagocytic cells – PMNL, macrophages (reticulo-endothelial cell system) and dendritic cells

5.      Functions: Phagocytosis (oxygen dependent and independent systems), Complement activation (General concept), Coagulation system, Inflammation (cardinal signs, mediators, vascular and cellular changes, role of Toll-like receptors)


1.      Antigen:

a)      Concepts and factors affecting immunogenecity

b)      Antigenic determinants, haptens and cross-reactivity, Carriers, Adjuvants 

c)      Types of antigens: Thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens, Synthetic antigens, Soluble and particulate antigens, Autoantigens, Isoantigens, Species specific antigens, Organ specific antigens, Heterophile antigens

2.      Immunoglobulins:

a)      Structure of basic unit, chemical and biological properties

b)      Characteristic of domain structure, functions of light and heavy chain domains

c)      Molecular basis of antibody diversity (kappa chain, lambda chain and heavy chain diversity)

d)     Classes of Immunoglobulins and their functions.

3.      Organs of immune system:

a)      Primary lymphoid organs (Thymus and Bursa): Thymus – structure, thymic education (positive and negative selection), Bone marrow

b)      Secondary lymphoid organs – Structure and function of spleen and lymph node, mucous associated lymphoid tissue and lymphatic system and lymph circulation

Unit- VI

1.      Adaptive / Acquired Immunity (Third line of defense):

a)      Acquired immunity: Active and Passive immunity.

b)      Primary and secondary response and its significance in vaccination programs

c)      Clonal selection and clonal deletion (immunetolerance)

d)     B cell biology, role of cytokines in activation and differentiation of B-cells

2.      Cell Mediated Immune Response

a)      Activation and differentiation of T cells

b)      Mechanism of CTL mediated cytotoxicity,  ADCC

c)      Applications of CMI

3.      T-cell biology

a)      T-cell dependent antibody response. outline

b)      T-cell independent antibody response. outline

c)      Types of T-cells and Cluster of differentiation (CD)

d)     T-cell receptor (TCR)

4.      Major Histocompatibility Complex:

a)      Definition, Structure and functions of MHC class–I and class–II molecules

b)      Antigen presentation, endogenous and exogenous pathways (diagrammatic)

5.      Cytokines

a)      Definition and general characteristics

b)      Types- colony stimulating factor, Interleukins, Tumor necrosis factor



B.Sc. Semester VI (Microbiology)

Molecular biology, Bioinstrumentation & Biotechnology


Course Contents:

Unit I: Gene Mutation & Regulation

Unit II: Genetic code & Protein synthesis

Unit III: Tools & Techniques of genetic engineering

Unit IV: Industrial Biotechnology

Unit V: Bioinstrumentation (Principle & application)

Unit VI: Applied Biotechnology


1. Dr. Mrs. S. S. Khandare

2. Dr. U. A. Malode

Mr. M. G. Ingale

B.Sc. Semester II (Microbiology) 

Microbial Techniques

(UG-MB (08)-S2-T)

This course is for B.Sc. Semester II students who are studying Microbiology as one of the subjects. 

Course Contents:

Unit-I: Microscopy: Principle and Applications

Unit-II: Staining Techniques

Unit-III: Microbial Reproduction and Growth.

Unit-IV: Microbial Control.

Unit-V: Chemical Control Agents

Unit-VI: Microbial interaction



1. Dr. Mrs. S.S. Khandare

2. Mr. M.G. Ingale

3. Dr. B.V. Mohite